Welcome to Ubuntu Video | Linux Videos for Human Beings
Welcome to Ubuntu Video | Linux Videos for Human Beings

Microsoft's New Permissive License Meets Opposition

Slashdot Linux - Sat, 2007-08-18 13:38
seven7h writes "Linux.com currently has an interesting story regarding Microsoft's new Permissive License, which they are currently trying to get certified by the OSI (Open Source Initiative). What I find interesting is not just that this has received a lot of criticism and opposition, but that one of the key opponents is Chris DiBona, open source programs manager for Google, Inc. Microsoft's strategies of creating open source like programs (ie Shared Source) has been called into question and whether the open source industry should become associated with Microsoft. This looks like it may be something to watch as it could allow Microsoft a foot in the door into Linux/Open Source, or define a line between Linux/Open Source and Microsoft."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Debian Linux 4.0 Gets an Update

DesktopLinux.com - Sat, 2007-08-18 12:45
A new update to the latest stable version of Debian 4.0 includes security updates and other important problem fixes.

Stephen Stalcup: Oh Noes! OLF here I come!

Planet Ubuntu - Sat, 2007-08-18 12:12

I was excited to get this in my in box this morning.. (and at the same time a little sick)

Hi Steve,

I’m writing to let you know that your talk was chosen for the Ohio
LinuxFest, to take place on September 29, at the Greater Columbus
Convention Center (GCCC) in Columbus, Ohio…..


The Ohio Linux Fest is the largest conference and expo for FOSS professionals and enthusiasts in the Midwest USA.

The topic I will be presenting will be on “Beginninig with Ubuntu.” The topic is aimed at new users to Ubuntu with the intentions of helping them find resources in the Ubuntu Community, how the Community is structured, and “what happens after I click INSTALL?…” I hope the presentation will be helpful to long time Ubuntu users, as the presentation will focus a great deal on community and community support.

Any and all suggestions are welcome

Think back to when you were a new Linux user or just started out with Ubuntu….

  • Do you have any “If I only knew then what I know now…” examples?
  • What was your #1 resource for information on using Ubuntu?
  • What wisdom would you leave with a new Ubuntu/Linux user?

I am also looking for a groovie template for this presentation.

If you are withing Driving distance, The Ohio Linux Fest is a great event, and I promise you will have a bunch of fun!
you can register at https://www.ohiolinux.org/register.html.

The Ohio LoCo Team will also be sponsoring a booth. If you are from Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, or Kentucky, you are welcome to join us. If you are interested in helping man the booth, shoot me an email.

We will also be hosting a Birds of a Feather event on the first night, more info to come…..

Check out https://www.ohiolinux.org for more information.

Citrix Announces Agreement to Acquire XenSource

Slashdot Linux - Sat, 2007-08-18 11:01
An anonymous reader writes "'Citrix has signed a definitive agreement to acquire XenSource a leader in enterprise-grade virtual infrastructure solutions. The acquisition moves Citrix into adjacent and fast growing datacenter and desktop virtualization markets.' For nearly $500 million, including about $100 million of unvested options, Citrix would be purchasing VMWare's closest competitor in the server virtualization market, with XenEnterprise v4 offering technology similar to VMWare's flagship product — and arguably overtake them as a combined solution, as VMWare offers little in the realm of application and desktop virtualization. Though subject to the customary closing conditions, both boards of directors have approved the transaction, and the deal is expected to close in Q4 of 2007."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Daniel Stone: a fit of narcissism

Planet Ubuntu - Sat, 2007-08-18 09:17
Courtesy of an article in today's Guardian, I present Stone's Corollary to Burton's Low:
As a discussion about the contribution of vehicles to climate change grows longer, the probability of stating that China is putting 1,000 new cars on the road every week approaches one.
When used as a defence for driving an SUV, I'd also like to invoke the sudden death variant, where the discussion is finished immediately.

Does VMware (knowingly) violate Linux copyrights?

Topix - Linux - Sat, 2007-08-18 02:44

The answer appears to be a qualified 'Yes.' As reported by VentureCake , VMware's ESX appears to be derived from Linux in a material way, and has been notified of such over a year ago . via CNET News.com

Christer Edwards: 7 Steps To An Encrypted Partition (local or removable disk)

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 21:10

This last week I’ve been very interested in encryption. If you missed it you might be interested in my post on encrypting files or emails with GPG. In this tutorial I wanted to outline how to encrypt a local partition or a removable device (like a USB key). The steps used here will work for either type of device although you’ll need to replace your partition name and number for the examples provided here.

Attention: following this tutorial will wipe all data from the partition or device you write it to. You cannot encrypt your file system after-the-fact using this method. Be sure you have backups or don’t care about the data being lost if you follow these steps!!!

Step 1:

The first step in the tutorial is installing the cryptsetup utility, which is part of the cryptsetup package. You can search for this using your favorite package management utility or use this command:

sudo aptitude install cryptsetup

Step 2:

Now that we have the cryptsetup utility installed we’ll need to prepare the device for use. If you have a newly created device or partition you may be able to skip this step, but it also won’t hurt to redo this step anyway.

If you are unsure what the device is listed as, you can use either of these two commands:

sudo fdisk -l

(this will list your current partition table, both on local and removable media.)


(this will show kernel messages pertaining to hardware. If you plug in a removable device and wait a few seconds, this will show what you what device the kernel assigned the hardware.)

Once you know what device you want to apply this to you can run the following command on [your device] to create the partition you want to encrypt. I suppose you can also use a graphical utility like gparted, etc. Those tools are outside the scope of this tutorial.

sudo fdisk /dev/[your device]

(ie; if your device showed up as /dev/sdb you would use: sudo fdisk /dev/sdb)

For removable media make a single primary partition using the entire space of the device (or alter for your needs if you know what you’re doing).

Once you have created the partition you’ll want to “w”rite the change in fdisk. Remember, if you don’t “w”rite the changes none will be applied.

Step 3:

To make sure that your kernel is up to date concerning the newly created / altered partition table you may need to run the command:

sudo partprobe

Step 4:

Now we’ll get to encrypting this new partition. There are different options you can use here, and I’ll outline a few of them, but there really isn’t one that is “the best”. It depends on your level of security needs and the time you want to spend on it. If you want it done quickly and want a basic level of fairly-hard-to-break encryption you can use the first option. If you are super paranoid and don’t mind letting this take some time (hours or days on large disks!) to build you can use option three. Somewhere in the middle, option two is probably fine. Anyone have suggestions on other methods?

We’ll write data over the newly created partition to help aid in the encryption process. By writing data to the partition prior to encryption it helps protect against data attacks, finding patterns on the block-level, etc. You can use one of the following three commands:

sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/[your device] bs=4K

(this method is probably recommended unless you expect active attacks against your encryption layer)

sudo badblocks -vfw /dev/[your device] [block-size-of-your-device]

(this option will write 5 data patterns across your drive and overwrite and verify the data. This is used to check for badblocks, but can also be used to wipe out any existing data)

sudo dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/[your device] bs=4K

(this method is considered pretty secure. It is based on the truly random option below but is pseudo-random data–probably a very good option in most cases.)

sudo dd if=/dev/random of=/dev/[your device] bs=4K

(this is considered the most secure but will take a long time. It is also important to generate a lot of random data on your machine. Launch some applications, do some high disc I/O, move the mouse erratically, etc. This may take DAYS!)

Step 5:

At this point the partition is ready to be encrypted. Now there are multiple encryption methods and options to be used within each. This tutorial outlines using the LUKS encryption with my prefered string length, hash and cipher. You may change these if you know what you’re doing. If not, omitting my options will use the defaults (ripemd160 hash). This command will remind you that all data will be lost (although we already lost everything in Step 4. This is also where you’ll be prompted for your passphrase to access the encryption.

sudo cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/[your device] -c aes -s 256 -h sha256

(again, past [your device] are my preferred options)

If you see an error near this point similar to “Failed to setup dm-crypt key mapping.  Check kernel for support for the aes-cbc-plain cipher spec and verify that /dev/[your device] contains at least 258 sectors.” you’ll need to run this command:

sudo modprobe dm-crypt

You may want to have this module auto-magically added at boot time by appending this line to your /etc/modules file:


Step 6:

Now that we’ve created the encryption basic layout on the partition we need to open the encrypted partition for use.

sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/[your device] name

(name can be whatever you like. I use things like secure or vault or encrypt)

Step 7:

Now that we have the device open and added to the dm (dev mapper) system we can actually create a file system on it and use it. One last command and we’ve got ourselves an encrypted, usable filesystem.

sudo mke2fs -j /dev/mapper/name -L label

(where name was applied above and label is the filesystem label. I generally match the two. This also assumes an ext3 file system. If you know you want a different filesystem type I’m assuming you know the right command.)

If you’ve come this far your device is ready to use. A few additional points that you may be interested in.


First, if this is a local partition and filesystem, such as a /data folder, you may want it to be mounted automagically at boot time. You can add the new partition to your /etc/fstab file to be mounted at boot. Be sure to specify the /dev/mapper/[name] location and not the original partition location. You should note that when your booting system arrives at this device it will prompt you for a passphrase key and halt the boot process until one is provided. An example of a line in the /etc/fstab is:

/dev/mapper/name /data ext3 defaults 0 0

Second, if you are using this on a removable drive such as a usb key the Gnome Desktop (someone verify in KDE?) will recognize the encrypted setup and prompt you for a key visually. A message such as “The storage device contains encrypted data. Enter a password to unlock” will appear. You will be required to know the passphrase (as supplied in Step 5) to access this device again. The desktop system also allows you to “forget immediately“, “remember password until you logout” or “remember forever” the key provided. Those options are up to you and your usage. “Remember forever” should store the key in your gnome keyring.

Third, if you are following this guide for use on a removable disk you may want to change ownership (chown) on the mounted path and set group id (sgid) on the directory so that your user has full permissions. Considering we ran everything with sudo the mounted path and ownership is probably set to the root user. You can use these two commands to set the permissions:

sudo chown -R user.user /media/[name]

(user.user should, of course, be replaced with your username on the system)

sudo chmod g+s /media/[name]

([name] is the mount point that the system auto-mounted the device on. It *should* match whatever you set the label to in step 7.)

There is also an option to create multiple keys to unlock the device. This is helpful if it is a multi-user system and you don’t want to use a shared passphrase. You would add a key to the encrypted device using:

sudo cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/[your device]

This will prompt you for your current key and then the new key. The new key will have to be entered twice. Also, if you want to remove a key you can use the similar:

sudo cryptsetup luksDelKey /dev/[your device] [slot #]

To find out more information about your encrypted partition / device, and to see things such as assigned key slots, you can also use:

sudo cryptsetup status name

sudo cryptsetup luksDump /dev/[your device]

I would like to expand this soon to include encrypting your entire root filesystem or other variations like bypassing the passphrase but storing the “key” an a usb drive or similar. This way it is similar to a hardware key needed to boot your machine. There are a lot of different ways this could go… until then, I think this has become long enough

Tiago Faria: Ubuntu Certified Professional discussion list

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 20:23

After a brief discussion with Mark and Billy Cina (who runs the Ubuntu training program) the discussion list for subjects related to the certification and certified Ubuntu training has been created.

More information about this discussion list:


You can use this list for questions or anything related to the training program. Books reviews, study material tips, exam centers, etc.

Hope this helps out everyone who is interested in becoming Ubuntu Certified Professional!

Etch-based MEPIS 7.0 beta ISOs arrive

DesktopLinux.com - Fri, 2007-08-17 20:00
MEPIS founder Warren Woodford today launched "the first official beta" of the upcoming v7.0 release of SimplyMEPIS Linux. According to Woodford, "version 6.9.60beta1" is based on a Debian Etch core combined with up-to-date user applications that are recompiled by MEPIS from upstream Debian and Ubuntu sources.

Aaron Toponce: Splogs- Pay Attention

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 19:49

Are you doing the following?

  • Hosting a site
  • Syndicating feed content on your site using RSS
  • Not providing links or trackbacks to the originating content on your site
  • Posting advertisements on your site

Then you are violating my license, and probably many others, as outlined: You know who you are, and so do I. I would recommend taking down the offending site in question, being honest with yourselves and the community. I have tools at my disposal to make sure it’s down at any event. I just hope that you have the moral character to do it yourself.

You’ve been notified.

Carthik Sharma: SSH Menu - Save and Open SSH Connections from the Panel

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 19:08

I was looking for a replacement for SecureCRT in Ubuntu. Something that would let me save all my SSH connections and make it possible to open a connection with the least effort.

As is often the case, I found something better than SecureCRT - a panel applet for GNOME that gives me a drop-down list of SSH connections. SSHMenu is cool, way too cool.


Tristan Rhodes: Ubuntu Innovations

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 18:13

In the short amount of time that Ubuntu has been around (3 years, with 6 releases) it has attained an impressive level of popularity and growth. I believe this success is due to some critical improvements that Ubuntu has implemented when compared to other Linux distributions.

These improvements were not always created by Ubuntu, but Ubuntu was the first distro to strategically implement the best features and to remove the unnecessary ones. I will discuss some of the major advantages that Ubuntu has provided from day one.

Simple install

Ubuntu has always had a very simple install, and it requires very little input from the user. The first versions were text-based, but they were simple enough that almost any novice could install Ubuntu with a few presses of the "Enter" key.

This was considered a major breakthrough since Debian (which Ubuntu is based on) was historically difficult to install. Back then, the Debian install had many steps and required the user to know how to partition a hard drive, select hardware drivers, and make several other technical choices.

Regular release schedule

As far as I know, Ubuntu was the first Linux distribution to follow a regular release schedule. Ever since the first version of Ubuntu, Canonical has promised that a new version would be released every 6 months, and that each release would be supported for 18 months. This has proven to be true, except for a 2-month delay to polish the first long-term-support (LTS) release.

We now know that there will be an LTS version of Ubuntu every two years. These LTS versions provide a much longer life-cycle, which is preferred by server administrators. LTS versions receive security updates for 3 years on the Desktop Edition, and 5 years on the Server Edition.

Live-CD that you can install from

Following the success of the Knoppix live-cd, Ubuntu created a way to install directly from a live-cd. This innovation makes it simple to test Ubuntu on a system, and then to quickly install it on that system, without a reboot. Sort of a "Try before you buy" approach. This also removed the need for a separate "Install CD". Meanwhile, the other Linux distributions required you to download and burn up to 6 CDs.

One application for each purpose

Before Ubuntu, most Linux distributions would install multiple applications that performed the same function. For example, the default install would include two web browsers, two chat applications, three multimedia players, etc. This was very confusing to new users, who wouldn't know which application they should use. By default, Ubuntu only includes one application per function, but you have the ability to install more applications at any time.

Secure by default

The default install does not run any externally visible network services. This surprised our security administrator, who wanted to make sure that I installed a firewall on my Ubuntu desktop. I told him that nothing is externally visible, and after a quick NMAP scan, he confirmed it (you can also use the "netstat" command to test this). At the time, most Linux distributions came with running network applications such as SSH. Be sure to install a firewall (like FireStarter) if you decide to install a remote network service on your computer.

Administration actions require "sudo"

Long before Microsoft implemented UAC, Ubuntu required users to use "sudo" to perform administrative actions. Ubuntu did not create "sudo", but I believe they were the first to disable the root user and require the user to use "sudo".

Over 20,000 applications can easily be installed

(Thanks Debian!) What more do I need to say about this? Many other distros (RPM-based) offered thousands of packages, but they forced you to manually download the package, find out if there are any dependencies, download those packages, and if you are lucky you will get the original application installed. Debian's packaging system is super slick and Ubuntu has created some easy-to-use front-ends that make installing software a breeze.

Include non-free hardware drivers

This is the most controversial feature that Ubuntu has provided. Their reasoning is simple: If you can't use the hardware, then you will never access the 20,000 open source applications. Which of these two options is better:

A. Person uses Windows because Linux would not run on their computer, or
B. Person uses some non-free hardware drivers, but only uses open source applications

Yes, this is a compromise, but I believe it is a necessary one. Only once Linux achieves a critical mass will we be able to force the hardware industry to provide open source drivers. Wide-spread adoption needs to occur BEFORE we will get a fully open source operating system that runs on all hardware.

Made the color brown sexy

Who used a brown desktop theme before Ubuntu? Some people don't like the brown, but they can quickly change it. I like to use the default interface so that I can show people what it would be like for them.

Your turn!

I am sure that there are many other important factors to Ubuntu's success. I would appreciate it if you shared your favorite ones in a comment, or on your blog.

Pete Savage: Of obscurity… - JavaScript

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 16:53

Heheh, sound like an angry post. I had to work today hacking up a piece of code which had been bought in from a small firm. I wanted to do something fairly simple but, I hit a wall. Upon opening the .js file, I was hit with a single line of text, totaling over 10,000 characters. GEdit fell over, trying to parse the .js code for syntax highlighting. Turning that off helped.

As Javascript doesn’t really care much about white space, these people in their wisdom had made it as difficult to read the file as possible, by not using a single newline in the entire piece of code. They had also cleverly obscured all the variables with things like a, b, and c. Since this code had been purchased by my client. I was rather annoyed at having to go through and add over 500 extra newlines, just to read the damn thing. I sneakily used python Even then I had to put the braces {} in the right places to make it readable.

Grrrrr. If you’ve bought source code, you should be able to work with it.

ODF Vs. OOXML File Counts On the Web

Slashdot Linux - Fri, 2007-08-17 13:54
mrcgran writes "In eight months since Office 2007 was released to the general public (10 months since release to enterprise customers), there are fewer than 2,000 of these office documents posted on the Web. In the last three months, 13,400 more ODF documents have been added to the Web, with only 1,329 OOXML documents added. It would be hard for the Microsoft camp to spin ten times as many ODF documents added as OOXML documents, especially since 34% of those new documents were added on Microsoft.com. That isn't what I would call good traction for Microsoft's overwhelmingly dominant office suite."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Christer Edwards: Vim Tip of the Week : August 17th, 2007 - Time based Undo (or Redo)

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 13:49

Well these Vim tips have really been one of the more popular topics to come through this blog in a while.  I’d like to keep with tradition and keep these going each Friday.  This weeks tip is reverting or redoing changes based on time, vs simply the undo command (’u') and redo command (’ctrl-r’).

From the vim :help section:

:earlier {count}    Go to older text state {count} times.

:earlier {N}s    Go to older text state {N} seconds before.

:earlier {N}m    Go to older text state {N} minutes before.

:earlier {N}h    Go to older text state {N} hours before.

Also supported is the :later command following the same syntax pattern. Easily revert to changes at previous times with the :earlier, or re-do changes forward with :later.  Of course :later won’t read your mind and create your document for you, but once you’ve gone back in time you can go back to the future.

For more info on this tip type “:help earlier” within vim.

Freddy Martinez: RFID FTL!

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 13:13

I recently came back to school today and I was unhappy to see the RFID-disabled cards being issued to students. While this may seem like a smooth move on the part of the school, it disturbs me as I am unsure the level of vulnerability this system leaves me. There are several issues I have with this new “convenience” but I will only write about two.

  • The RFID chip is potentially damaging to other cards I have. This included my debit cards which could possibly get demagnetized (i.e. stop working) because of the RFID chip. I like my money, therefore I dislike something tampering with it.
  • There is a lack of transparency in the process. I can see why the administration could find RFID to be easier to use, but students do not know if their entering buildings is being logged, if their personal information is stored on the chip, how much information is being transmitted, if the data is encrypted etc.

You can read more about problems and concerns with RFID here. So in the interest of freedom and security, I went out and bought an RFID blocking wallet to protect myself and my personal security. Most people will probably think this is a bit extreme but seeing as I actually do care about privacy and freedom, I think that they are mistaken. Anyone with half a brain can get something like an RFID experiemental kit and find the frequency and read the data.

So I’ll keep my wallet and my freedom, how about you?

How many Linux desktop users are there?

DesktopLinux.com - Fri, 2007-08-17 12:15
Desktop operating systems numbers, even when gathered by top research companies, such as IDG and Gartner, are often a bit fuzzy. When it comes to uncommon desktop operating systems, like Linux, the numbers often amount to little more than an educated guess.

Christer Edwards: ubuntu-restricted-extras : all that “extra” stuff, all in one place

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 10:38

I wanted to give another update on my Gutsy testing.  I now have two of my laptops running Ubuntu 7.10 “Gutsy Gibbon” and they are both working just fine so far.  I have been consistently submitting the bugs that I find (and thanks to all the rest of you doing the same!)  Again, nothing to keep me from using the machine in production so far, just little oddities here and there.

Beyond the report above there is something else here that I think many of you will be interested in.  With the release of Gutsy there will be a package called “ubuntu-restricted-extras” which includes the following:

cabextract flashplugin-nonfree gsfonts-x11 gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse jackd java-common liba52-0.7.4 libavcodec1d libavutil1d libcdaudio1 libdvdread3 libfaac0 libfaad2-0 libfreebob0 libgsm1 libid3tag0 libjack0 liblame0 libltdl3 libmad0 libmjpegtools0c2a libmms0 libmp4v2-0 libmpcdec3 libmpeg2-4 libqt3-mt libquicktime1 libsidplay1 libsoundtouch1c2 libx264-54 libxvidcore4 msttcorefonts odbcinst1debian1 qjackctl sun-java6-bin sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin ubuntu-restricted-extras unixodbc unrar

That is quite a bit of the “extra” stuff that many of us have installed manually or looked to third-party solutions like Automatix for.  This is one more positive step in the right direction for ease of use, but perhaps not quite 100% when it comes to Free Software.  Of course we all have to draw that line somewhere, up to you.

I’ll have more Gutsy updates soon and (hopefully) a tutorial on encrypted filesystems by this weekend.  Thanks for reading.

Herman Bos: BackupPC broken with edgy and feisty systems

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 07:39

Last week we started using feisty on our new internal terminal server. Quite nice, actually the only noticeable compared to dapper is the newer evolution and openoffice.org. Anyway that was not my point. What I ran into that the automatic backups failed all the time after say like ~10000 files. Not good. The error message just says “Got fatal error during xfer (fileListReceive failed)”. It seems during a backup session rsync retrieves a new filelist every X amount of files. At some point this just fails, no further lead.

Took a while to figure it out but apparently the rsync on feisty is buggy (on edgy as well as I found out later). We use BackupPC for our daily backups and its running on dapper. I also tried putting the BackupPC software on a feisty system but that didn’t solve the problem. I fixed it by “backporting” (forwardporting?) the rsync dapper version to feisty. Problem solved.

In this process I found a tool called prevu (seems useful for the lazy people) which did the trick for me.

Alberto Milone: On the removal of the posts on Envy…

Planet Ubuntu - Fri, 2007-08-17 05:54

First of all thanks for all your kind comments. I am putting the posts back.

After all Envy was born for the Community and its existence wouldn’t make sense without its users, who provide feedback and contribute to make Envy an easy alternative to reading long howtos (which I write as well) and to long (and inevitable) troubleshooting sessions if something goes wrong (as regards the said guides). All the time I spent helping users on Ubuntuforums.org made me realise how important it is to have a quick way to install the latest release of (ATI or NVIDIA) proprietary drivers (e.g. what happens if your new card is supported only by the latest driver which is not available in the official repositories?). There is a massive request for such tools and when I read that some users got to know Envy on Planet Ubuntu and saved their computer from reinstalling Ubuntu (or even XP), I think it’s better to put back the posts on Envy. Of course you’re free not to use Envy and to read howtos (on this subject), which is perfectly fine and you’ll become more knowledgeable.

Even if such posts might look like spam (or simply useless) to the (lucky) users of graphic cards which work with (3D enabled) open source drivers, very often do they solve problems to many users (and, at least as far as I can see on ubuntuforums, most users seem to have ATI or NVIDIA cards).

P.S. Don’t worry, if you have a look at my website you’ll see that there are well visible warnings against using non-official tools in Ubuntu. Furthermore Envy has its own page on Launchpad if you want to report bugs.

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